Redox Signaling - RSS - RNS - ROS Modes of Action

Redox balance is the underlying chemical mechanism for all biological processes. Biological homeostasis is created, regulated, and sustained by reduction-oxidation (redox code) reactions that drive photosynthesis, respiration, and most reactions in between for all biological systems to function. A redox system consisting of chemical interactions of one or all of the following; Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS), and Reactive Sulfur Species (RSS), are key to the manipulation of many biological mechanisms to restore normal biological function.

IBAL lab analysis confirms the presence of these elements potentially involved in the redox signaling processes in metabolic pathways and intermediates in the Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Sulfur reactive species of biological systems.

Reactive Oxygen Species - ROS

Cationic Hydrogen (H+ (aq)) as an electron donor (reduction) for hydroxyl radical (HO•) or radical oxygen (O2-), also known as oxidative stress, cell aging (telomere length), and DNA methylation.

Reactive Nitrogen Species - RNS

Cationic metal Ammine complex (NH4+ (aq)) as an electron donor for nitrogen reduction and or acting as an ammonia (NH3) ligand in triggering glutamate production used in amino acid synthesis.

Reactive Sulfur Species - RSS

Anionic Sulfur (HSO4- (aq)) triggers redox switches and redox relays. Sulfur is considered as part of cellular antioxidant systems, and there is mounting evidence that RSS has stressor properties similar to the ones found in ROS but are formed under conditions as a separate class of oxidative stressors.

These reactive species provide multiple cell signaling pathways, redox systems, and electron transfers for homeostasis. IBAL developed compounds deliver high levels of H+, such as done with the ION-ZC1, ION-ZCM1 having a pH below 1.0 carrying H+ in a Zn2+ Cu2+ SOD ligand. There are many unknown beneficial potentials for Ion Biotechnology® based on the processes and relationships with ROS, RNS, RSS, and the interactions of NOx, H2S, and O2 and derived species. The core components of IBAL formulations, NH3 + HSO4- + H+, influence each of the above species by chemical mechanism, electron transferring, or biological processes.

Redox Signaling


Minerals are naturally occurring chemical compounds of elements required as essential nutrients by organisms to perform functions necessary for life. Metals have played an essential role in biological systems from the beginning of time. As catalytic or structural cofactors, metal ions are critical to the function of up to an estimated one-third of all enzymes and have extensive roles in biological systems. The invention brings chemistry and biology an interface to help solve current approaches’ inability to create and deliver biological homeostasis.

Natural forms of SOD and their delivery method are difficult to manufacture, hard to reproduce, and expensive. In contrast, IBAL artificial SOD can be produced in large quantities and utilized in several application technologies such as creams, injectables, transdermal patches, inhalers, and other administration methods currently used by health practitioners. IBAL compounds in SOD forms can be further developed with Manganese Mn2+ SOD and Iron Fe2+ SOD as ionic metals in addition to the Zn2+ Cu2+ SOD.

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